When you think of English translation, what do you think of? Is it a literal translation of a donkey’s lips that don’t match a horse’s mouth, or an inexplicable free translation. If it becomes a business English translation, what should everyone do? This is a difficult question type, do you have confidence? If you want to understand the knowledge points, come and Hujiang editor to have a look at the following business English translation skills Right.
1. The stylistic features of business English
1. Thinking is logical and unpretentious
Formal English has complex clauses, and the sentence length is usually longer than informal English.
The frequent use of long sentence participles and independent nominative structure are typical characteristics of written style. They are suitable for expressing multi-level and complex logical relationships, and can fully express interrelated meanings. This effect cannot be achieved by short sentences.
Because business correspondence often expresses that certain terms are mutually valid, mutually conditional, or describe a series of causal events, this style of language is very suitable for this requirement. E.g:
The work hereof shall be commenced in compliance with the construction work of Party A’s plant, and shall be completed within thirty days after the complete ion of Party A’s plant including the completion of inner part of the plant when the plant be in the condition that trial run for air conditioning mechanism is possible.
This is a sentence in the style of an English contract. This poem is a parallel sentence, in which the subject is work, and connects two predicates (shall be commenced and shall be completed).
2. Frequent use of formal written sentence patterns
2. The expression is simple and clear
Business English is a tool for business activities. Through reading the literature, you can find: Business English often uses concise, understandable, standardized, and formal words.
This feature is determined by the nature of international business communication, because international business communication is very effective and efficient, and the use of commonly used words is easy for both parties to understand and accept the transaction; there are few modifiers and the content is straightforward.
Unpopular vocabulary may increase communication barriers between the two parties and is therefore unpopular.
The choice of business English vocabulary is refined and rigorous, and seldom uses colloquial, informal, uncommon, irregular words or jargon.
Understanding the difference in style between spoken words and scroll words can help to achieve the appropriateness and appropriateness of language communication.
3. Vague syntax, good use of imperative sentences
Business English requires accuracy, completeness, clarity and conciseness, but proper use of vague language can have a positive effect.
The ambiguity of language is not only reflected in the meaning of words, but also the ambiguity of the meaning expressed in the syntax of specific business activities.
Using vague syntax does not mean lack of language ability, on the contrary, it is an essential part of language communication.
In order to improve the objective accuracy of business English, it is necessary to avoid expressing uncertain facts or data clearly and completely; similarly, due to the diplomatic strategy of business negotiations, certain opinions should not be too specific and clear.
Appropriate use of some vague expressions on certain occasions has a very positive significance in regulating the tension between the two parties in trade, alleviating embarrassing situations, and protecting themselves.
Since the two parties involved in the correspondence are trading partners, their status is equal.
Therefore, if one party wants the other party to take a certain action, he generally does not use imperative sentences, but uses declarative sentences to express his wishes. Whether the other party takes such actions is left to the other party’s decision.
This kind of language is very extensive in business correspondence. The following example sentences all function as imperative sentences in ordinary style, but their tone is very euphemistic and can achieve the effect of politeness. For example:
It would be appreciated if you could send us your shipping instructions.
Your confirmation on this point would be appreciated.
In written communication, it is important to pay attention to politeness.
In order to embody the principle of politeness, communicators often adopt the position of the other party to show respect and understanding of the other party, so that the other party can easily accept their own opinions.
Therefore, the second-person (you) or second-person possessive pronouns (your+ n) are often used as the subject in foreign trade letters, and the first person (I, we) is used less as the subject, or the subject is often used, and the first person (I, we) act as the subject.
2. The language features of business English
1. Good at using professional terms
This is mainly because Business English involves strong theories and objects in trade, business, marketing and finance, and the language professionalism presented is also strong.
For some familiar abbreviations of business English vocabulary that are frequently used, such as: bill of lading-B/L, the World Bank-WB, World Trade Organization.-WTO And so on; some are common terms such as economic policy, holding com/#pany holding company, devaluation (currency), etc.; some are terms that are constantly increasing in the development of business trade, consolidated debt, TPL (third-party logistics), cyber-payment (electronic payment), these new words enrich the content of business English.
2. Rigorous content and complex structure
Use words accurately and rigorously. The meaning of words is closely related to the context in which they are used, and is closely related to the culture in which they exist.
Different contexts have different meanings of words. In the process of translation, the translator must choose words accurately, express the concepts accurately, and the numbers and units must be accurate’, faithfully and accurately express the source language information in the target language, so that the information obtained by the original reader and the target reader can be obtained The information connotation of is equal.
In order to achieve the effect of euphemistic expression in business English, “passive sentences are often used”, which is very different from the expression in Chinese. Therefore, “English passive sentences do not have a ready-made corresponding expression when translated into Chinese” and need to follow Chinese idioms “Choose some appropriate means from the rich sentence patterns and auxiliary words to show the passive meaning of the original text.
3. Explore a wide range and be practical
The language form, vocabulary, and content of Business English are closely related to professional knowledge. It carries information on business theory and business practice. The precise use of professional vocabulary is the biggest feature of business language in the use of vocabulary. Business English translation Common Skills Common Skills in Business English Translation.
For example: sole license (exclusive license) and exclusive license (exclusive license), both have precise meanings and cannot be used interchangeably.
The former means that in the license transaction, the technology transferee has the exclusive right to the technology under the license in the area under the agreement during the validity period of the agreement, and is not allowed to grant third parties, and only allows the technology to be used and sold in the specified area. The license of the product; and the latter said that the licensor shall no longer subject the license agreement of the same content to any third party in the region, and even the licensor shall not use the technology in the region (Hu Gengshen, 2001: 154).
Another example: anti-dumping measures (anti-dumping measures), quota-free products (non-quota production) investment in non-productive projects (non-productive investment), clearance sale (clearance sale), closed cargo (listed in the list of fixed freight Goods) and so on.
4. Abbreviations are often used
The translated names, concepts, terminology, etc. used in the business English translation process should be consistent at all times.
It is not allowed to change the translated name of the same concept or term at will. The inconsistent translated name will inevitably cause misunderstanding and make readers confused about the translation.
As a business translator, he must have a considerable understanding of relevant professional knowledge to prevent mistranslation and cause disputes and losses to the parties involved.
In the process of translation, attention should be paid to the correct use of business terminology, abbreviations and professional new words that appear in different fields.
3. Translation method
1. Sequential translation method
The so-called sequential translation method is to organize the translation in the order of the original text. In business English, when the sentence is a series of actions and arranged according to the time arrangement or logical relationship of occurrence, the expression of this kind of sentence is more consistent with Chinese. “It can be translated in the order of the original text.
2. Reverse translation method
There is a big difference between English and Chinese language structures. English focuses on the first, Chinese focuses on the second, and the Chinese long sentence adopts the summative form.
Put more information points at the back, the more important the later. If a sentence has both a narrative and a statement, Chinese puts the narrative part first.
The expression part is placed at the end of $English, the opposite is true. The expression part is often placed at the beginning of the sentence, and when translated into Chinese, it is placed at the end of the sentence” to form a reverse translation, some words with negative meaning.
3. Word meaning extension translation method
The word meaning extension translation method is based on the internal connection of the context, through the literal meaning of the words or phrases in the sentence and even the whole sentence from the outside to the inside, using some expressions that conform to Chinese habit, selecting the exact Chinese words and sentences, and correcting the essence of the original content Express it.
From the perspective of word meaning, extensions can be divided into abstract extensions and specific extensions. From the perspective of syntax, extensions can be divided into logical extensions, pragmatic extensions, rhetorical extensions, and conceptual scope adjustments.
The abstraction of the meaning of a word refers to the expression of certain words with clear and specific literal meanings in the original text, using abstract and general words in Chinese.
This concretization extension means that when a word representing an abstract concept or attribute is used to express a specific thing, it is expressed with a concretized thing, and its concrete original features are returned to make readers clear at a glance.
Logic extension means that in the process of translation, literal translation of a certain word, phrase, or even the entire sentence will make the translation uncomfortable and inconsistent with the expression habits of the target language. Therefore, the word, phrase or the entire sentence must be based on the logical relationship of the context. Starting from its original intention, from the outside to the inside, using expressions that conform to the habit of the target language, selecting exact words and sentences, and accurately expressing the essence of the original content.
Semantic extension is to supplement the out-of-string sound in the original text, which belongs to the technique of pragmatic extension.
Pragmatics is a non-semantic pragmatic meaning, which is generally not expressed by vocabulary or grammatical means. It is non-conventional and latent; the recipient understands this pragmatic meaning by means of communicative competence. In other words, it is The meaning derived from the speaker’s words combined with the counterparty, the purpose of the communication and the context of the communication.
In addition, there are translation methods for extensions of rhetoric and concepts.
4. Condensed translation method
The structure of some sentences in Business English is complex and the amount of information is large. It is difficult to translate them in one way.
When translating such sentences, it is necessary to clarify the relationship between the modifier and the head word and the relationship between the various components within the modifier according to the specific situation.
Use various methods in a comprehensive and flexible manner, not only faithfully reproduce the original content, but also ensure that the translation is smooth, accurate, and fluent in sentences. From the perspective of language characteristics, English is hypotaxis, while Chinese is divine.
5. Part-of-speech translation method
conversion refers to the change of language part of speech and expression method in business English translation.
Due to differences in the expression habits, sentence structure, and word collocation between English and Chinese, it is often difficult to achieve the same part of speech and expression method in translation.
In order to adapt to the expression habits and grammatical rules of the target language, it is necessary to use conversion translation skills of parts of speech and expression methods in business English translation.
In order to achieve the effect of euphemistic expression in business English, passive sentences are often used, which is very different from Chinese expression.
Therefore, when English passive sentences are translated into Chinese, there is no ready-made corresponding expression, but according to Chinese idioms, some appropriate means should be selected from the rich sentence patterns and auxiliary words to express the passive meaning of the original text.
Business English requires translators to be more precise and equivalent, because business English involves many documents, terms and other information, so it must be precise. There are big differences between Chinese and Western cultures, and more attention should be paid to this aspect. One word difference is easy to make big mistakes. Therefore, it is particularly important to do a good job in business English translation.